Angelone, Erik; Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen; Massey, Gary (2016). Cognitive Processes. In: Claudia Angelelli; Brian Baer (Hg.). Researching Translation and Interpreting. (43-57). Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Routledge. Peer reviewed.
The shift in interest from the product as the primary object of study in T&I (i.e., a focus on target texts and their relation to source texts) to the producer (i.e., a focus on cognitive processes) can be dated to the early 1980s. Holmes (1972/2004: 185) anticipated this shift by including process-oriented research in his much-cited map, placing it within the descriptive branch of translation studies and suggesting that this area might come to be known as “translation psychology or psycho-translation studies.” Since then, process research has become almost synonymous with cognitive approaches to T&I. Toury’s (1995, 2012; see also Chesterman 2013) distinction between translation acts, or cognitive processes, and events, or socially-situated processes, however, underscores the fact that cognitive processes are always embedded in a context. Perhaps more apparent in interpreting, which has long been identified as a socially-situated activity (e.g., Angelelli 2004; Berk Seligson 1990; Wadensjö 1998), the interaction between processes and contexts has developed into a vibrant area of research in T&I.