The contribution of water surface Fresnel reflection to BIPV yield

; ; (). The contribution of water surface Fresnel reflection to BIPV yield. Solar Energy , 155 951-962. Peer reviewed.

Fresnel reflection on a water surface is highly variable throughout the year and can have a significant influence on building-integrated vertical PV panels, yet is generally disregarded in yield calculations.
We analyze beam irradiances of two horizontal pyranometers situated next to a lake, one facing upwards and one facing downwards, to estimate the contribution of Fresnel reflection to the beam irradiance on a vertical surface. We show that in general the observed beam irradiance on the downward facing instrument matches the calculated Fresnel reflection. In contrast to other studies investigating water albedo, we also found that the reflection percentage decreases consistently with higher wind speeds and lower solar zenith angle. Fresnel reflection has the highest contribution for vertical surfaces in winter, with varying contributions between <1% and >30% of monthly global irradiance over the course of one year for different latitudes, and should thus be included in yield estimates for building integrated PV installations situated next to bodies of water.