Measuring suspended sediments in periglacial reservoirs using water samples, LISST and ADCP
Döring, M. (2017). Measuring suspended sediments in periglacial reservoirs using water samples, LISST and ADCP. International Journal of River Basin Management (TRBM), published online, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2017.1327866. Peer reviewed.; ; ; ;
Climate change will impact the water and sediment conveyance into periglacial reservoirs. It is therefore important to understand and forecast future reservoir sedimentation processes with regard to climate change. In the present project, particle size distribution (PSD) and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were measured in three reservoirs in the Swiss Alps whose catchment areas are covered by glaciers by at least 40%. The threefold combination of water sample analysis, laser in-situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was applied and the results compared to each other. The combination of the three measuring techniques was proven suitable for assessing PSD and SSC in periglacial reservoirs. Water sample analysis and LISST records showed that most of the suspended sediments in the reservoir are in the range of clay and silt. SSC was relatively low in the order of 100 mg/l. An increase of both PSD (e.g. median diameter d50) and SSC with increasing reservoir depth could be observed in deep reservoirs. Flow velocities and Signal-to-Noise ratios (SNR) were measured with ADCP. SNR values allowed to study the mixing of inflowing river water and the evolution and decay of turbidity currents. There is evidence of dominant homopycnal flows, i.e. stratified flow was restricted to the regions close to the inflow. Flocculation, influence of mica, and organic content could be neglected. This paper presents detailed information about PSD and SSC gained with water sample analysis and LISST measurements. Furthermore, flow field measurements and tracking of mixing by means of ADCP will be illustrated. Finally, application experiences and limitations will be discussed.