Energieeffizienz des Brotbackprozesses
Energy efficiency of the bread baking process Baking is an energy-intensive process including substantial losses. Increasing energy efficiency not only helps to slow down climate change, but also reduces the amount of money spent on primary energy. The objective of this study was to compare different methods of determining the energy consumption during the bread baking process. In the first part, energy consumption was measured experimentally in an electrically heated rack oven. The difference between standard trials and trials with no product in the oven identified the energy absorbed by the bread and trials with the empty oven demonstrated the total energy loss. The second part of this study incorporated a specific calculation to determine how much energy is required to raise the temperature of the bread and dry the crust. This value, called benchmark, described the minimum energy requirement. The measured energy consumption for baking in a rack oven is 1470 kJ/kg of bread. The corresponding energy benchmark (physical minimum) is 745 kJ/kg, 65% of this energy is used for the evaporation of water. The efficiency is calculated by 50.7%. Results showed, that the bread baking process is not efficient, needing twice as much of energy as the calculated benchmark. The objective of sustainable energy management is to optimize the energy consumption of the bread baking process to bring it close to this minimum value.