Removal of rotavirus and adenovirus from artificial ground water using hydrochar derived from sewage sludge
Gerner, Gabriel; Krebs, Rolf; (2015). Removal of rotavirus and adenovirus from artificial ground water using hydrochar derived from sewage sludge: doi:10.1111/jam.12863. Applied Microbiology. Peer reviewed.; ;
Aims: To determine the pathogenic virus removal performance of an
adsorbent produced from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.
Methods and Results: The removal of human pathogenic rotavirus and
adenovirus was investigated with columns of 10 cm saturated sand with and
without amendments of 15% (w/w) hydrochar. Virus concentrations were
determined with reverse transcription (RT) quantitative polymerase chain
reaction (qPCR). The experiments with sand showed 1 log removal, while the
columns with 15% (w/w) hydrochar amendment showed 2 to >3 log removal
for both viruses. Deionized (DI) water flushing into the virus-retaining
columns revealed that the secondary energy minimum played a larger role in
the attachment of rotavirus onto hydrochar surfaces than adenovirus.
Improved virus removal may be attributed to the introduction of hydrophobic
and/or meso-macro surface structures of the hydrochar providing favourable
attachment sites for viruses.
Conclusions: Hydrochar amended sand beds showed improved virus removal
efficiencies exceeding 996% corresponding to 24 log removal. The addition of
humic acid in the influent did not hinder the adsorptive removal of viruses.
Significance and Impact of the Study: This study suggests that hydrochar
derived from sewage sludge can be used as an adsorbent for virus removal in