Industrial Scale Suspension Culture of Living Cells
Kovar, Karin; ; (2014). Industrial Scale Suspension Culture of Living Cells: Microalgae Grown Under Heterotrophic and Mixotrophic Conditions. Weinheim: Wiley-Blackwell.
The submersed cultivation of organisms in sterile containments or fermenters has become the standard manufacturing procedure, and will remain the gold standard for some time to come. This book thus addresses submersed cell culture and fermentation and its importance for the manufacturing industry. It goes beyond expression systems and integrally investigates all those factors relevant for manufacturing using suspension cultures. In so doing, the contributions cover all industrial cultivation methods in a comprehensive and comparative manner, with most of the authors coming from the industry itself. Depending on the maturity of the technology, the chapters address in turn the expression system, basic process design, key factors affecting process economics, plant and bioreactor design, and regulatory aspects.
Microalgae belong to a genetically and physiologically highly divergent group of eukaryotic microorganisms possessing unique biochemical pathways. Their biodiversity offers an as yet unexploited natural source of high-value bioactive molecules of potential use in pharmaceuticals, food/feed additives, cosmetics, flavors, and high-performance chemicals. Although the term “microalga” is typically used as a synonym for a photoautotrophic, eukaryotic, unicellular organism, it is possible to achieve efficient biomass production and biosynthesis of certain metabolites when the cells are grown with organic carbon and without light. Consequently, microalgae can be cultivated similarly to bacteria or yeasts, in multipurpose stirred-tank bioreactors made from steel. Opting for such well-controlled cultivation processes is justified when regulatory approval of a pharmaceutical or nutraceutical product is required, or where manufacturing productivity and robustness can be significantly enhanced. However, with the exception of a few processes for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, industrial scale cultivation of microalgae under heterotrophic conditions (i.e., in the dark, with an organic substance as an energy and carbon source) in conventional bioreactors is almost non-existent. The biotechnological focus with microalgae is therefore on the isolation, screening, and (genetic) improvement of appropriate species, as well as on advancing production technologies.